Christian WorldviewJ Warner WallaceThe Church January 11, For our first symposium of the new year, we decided to ask several Christian leaders what they thought might be the most important issues to be faced by the church in
Comments Once every three months, Alan Nugent, chief technology officer of billion-dollar software company Novell, sits down with a small group of colleagues to decide what software the company will give away for free.
For the most part, Novell still sells software the old-fashioned way, with a licence to use applications written and controlled by Novell. But in the past year, the company has partially converted to the open-source software approach, with which anybody can download a program's source code and modify it.
The result is a hybrid strategy that forces Novell to question whether its commercial products - even portions of its flagship NetWare line - have become commodities that can be easily replaced by open-source substitutes.
And increasingly, the answer is yes. Story continues below advertisement "One of the attributes we look at is whether there is a potential open-source alternative or what elements of open-source can be used in this product," Mr. Once considered a diversion for computing hobbyists, open-source software is increasingly encroaching on traditional markets and, in the process, altering the strategies of powerful technology companies.
Many software manufacturers believe that they have little choice but to adopt at least some form of the popular trend, just to keep pace with the rest of the industry. Some large companies, IBM and Oracle among them, backed open-source operating systems such as Linux as potential replacements for Windows with the hope of loosening Microsoft's grip over much of the industry.
In doing so, however, they may have fostered the expansion of open source into their own fields, threatening their products as well. Indeed, just the threat of a viable product born of an open-source project - and such projects now number in the tens of thousands - is already affecting prices of commercial offerings, Mr.
Microsoft is feeling it with desktop software; others, such as companies that manufacture server middleware and database software, are probably next. Open source has become something like the invisible hand of the software economy, driving prices down and pinpointing those areas ripe for commodity status.
While Microsoft continues to fight it, other companies have no choice but to embrace the technology, even though its long-term profitability remains largely unproven. Story continues below advertisement Story continues below advertisement The adoption of open source has been fuelled largely by cost-conscious customers, many of whom are still digging their way out of one of the worst periods in the technology industry's history.
Consider the case of Corporate Express, a Denver-based provider of office and computer supplies. Now, Corporate Express is pushing the use of open source in new areas, such as Java server software, databases and search engines.
To Andy Miller, the company's vice-president of technical architecture, the old way of buying infrastructure software such as databases and application servers from big software makers just doesn't make sense. It's just what I need to run my business applications, which is what really adds value," he said.
The same conditions that made low-cost hardware so common appear to be accelerating in the realm of open-source software. Travel industry giant Sabre Holdings, for example, is moving its mainstream travel applications from IBM mainframes and Hewlett-Packard NonStop servers to several open-source software components that run on cheap, commodity hardware.
The company intends to keep storing customer data on the high-end NonStop server and to use a farm of 45 Linux servers that run the open-source MySQL database to handle simple transactions. Sabre expects open-source software to cohabit with proprietary products that offer more sophisticated features.
But open source is the first choice. Story continues below advertisement "We have to have our software costs down to a bare minimum," said Scott Healy, vice-president of systems planning and engineering.
Linux servers were the first open-source product to become a mainstay of corporate data centres, but other types of software, such as databases and applications, are quickly gaining viability. And although the rise of Linux has been most threatening to Microsoft, the extension of open source's reach could take proprietary software business away from many other companies as well.
IBM, which was central to spreading the open-source movement beyond its grass roots and into the corporate setting, is another major player that is taking the dual approach of selling proprietary software while offering open-source services. Executives acknowledge the possibility that emerging open-source products will catch up and match the functionality of Big Blue's commercial line.
The market will always win.
american express case study: what is the dilemma facing american express and what factors are important in understanding this decision? Get professional help with your research essay paper today from our student essay service. Latin American Business. Companies are facing a cannibalizing dilemma. Martin LaMonica. Now, Corporate Express is pushing the use of open source . Navigating the rough waters created by the growing American hostility towards China is a challenge for the regime headed by Imran Khan, Pakistan’s new prime minister.
Involvement in these communities helps IBM advance industry standards, such as those for grid computing, which help unify Big Blue's disparate products.
IBM's commercial products, such as its Eclipse-based development tools, offer richer features than the software available for free. Story continues below advertisement The service offering could strain HP's partnership with BEA Systems and Oracle, but the company still sees a good business opportunity in open source, even if the use of proprietary software continues to grow, said Mike Balma, chief Linux business strategist at HP.
As such larger, established companies search for a balance, several purely open-source operations have emerged to challenge the incumbents. Red Hat and SuSE Linux, which Novell acquired last year, hitched on to Linux's rising fortunes in the operating system market, but companies are also seeking business opportunities in other software categories.
Two other rapidly growing open-source companies - Java server software maker The JBoss Group and open-source database manufacturer MySQL - have adopted the "professional open-source" approach, selling a commercial licence around free software and offering support and other services.
These companies aren't encumbered by any conflict with proprietary products, unlike their larger competitors, which face a significant challenge in shedding a "not invented here" way of thinking. Still, open-source middleware, databases and desktop systems represent a tiny fraction of the overall business software market.
Commercial software companies argue that the cost of maintaining enterprise-grade software is far more significant than the original price to license it and that open-source offerings fall short in this area. Moreover, well-heeled players like IBM and Microsoft have the resources to invest in research and innovation.
Corporations that consider a deeper commitment to open source should perform legal due diligence to protect themselves from potential lawsuits around patents or copyrights, even with the indemnification offered by providers, said George Weiss, an analyst at Gartner Group.
A meeting between technology executives and the company's legal staff "opened the institutional doors" to using open source, said Bob Offutt, Sabre's senior vice-president of strategic planning, and the company eventually decided that it was comfortable with its exposure and came up with a policy regarding open source.
Because open-source development has become so pervasive, many companies have felt pressure to experiment with it for fear of being left behind.
Server maker Sun, for example, was late in embracing Linux but now is pinning its hopes on open-source packages to break into new markets. Its Java Desktop System, released in December, is a collection of open-source products for which Sun provides support.The French defense team for confessed al Qaeda conspirator Zacarias Moussaoui — who is a French national of Moroccan origins — is preparing itself for the worst.
The Palm Oil Dilemma case study The ability to respond to NGOs and the additional cost of certified palm oil are some of the future challenges facing the RSPO. American Express The Card. In spite of the recent BP articles highlighting the fact that our chief problems are not political, this list is a perfect example of how even the most prominent voices in the Church tend to view politics as the primary realm in which Christians operate, and where the Church is made or broken.
Development of Life-Sustaining Treatment Guidelines Joint Commission on Health Care September 7, Meeting provide patients opportunity to express desires to refuse or accept offered life-sustaining •Disputes are regularly identified as the single biggest ethical dilemma facing North American hospitals (e.g., over 50% of ethics.
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unique dilemma and additional pressures facing those licensed professionals as they certainly do American soldiers, sailors, marines, and airmen undoubtedly retain First Amendment rights, for exam- ers in providing a conduit to express their concerns to investigators For.