There are only a few thousand Torres Strait Islanders on the islands themselves, the great majority of the rest living in North Queensland, and seemingly happy to be called Aboriginal as well.
Comparative Table of the insider trading provisions in New Zealand, Australia and the European Union Table of Acronyms and Abbreviations illustration not visible in this excerpt I Introduction Since the financial crisis inthere is no doubt about the fact that the evolving financial markets are essential for economic growth, employment and prosperity.
Those markets serve as financing means for the business world and consumers benefit from the availability of a wide range of financial products and the additional advantages that those markets entail higher pensions and lower mortgage costs.
However, if those financial markets want to continue to contribute both to economy and society, the promotion of a good, integer and transparent functioning of those markets is essential. The price of a financial instrument is always the result of the available financial information.
And to have proper price formation, it is essential that all the stakeholders have equal access to the relevant information as much as possible. Yet, the effectiveness of those regulations can be questioned. For example, directors can make use of certain non-public information to trade in securities.
They abuse their superior knowledge and consequently other investors regard this as unfair trading. Due to those unfair practices, other potential investors will turn their back to the financial markets.
But in most cases, law enforcement authorities face difficulties in proving the offenses. The United States was in the first country to regulate insider conduct. Most countries started developing securities markets acts against insider trading in the s and the s.
In New Zealand the first legal steps in this context were established in Since then, the New Zealand regulation on insider trading has been amended frequently along with a major policy shift in Inthe New Zealand rationale underlying the insider trading prohibition shifted from a fiduciary rationale to a market rationale.
This major change has been transplanted from the Australian insider trading regime, where a major policy reform in determined this market-based approach. Other Member States followed suit and consequently the national insider trading prohibitions anticipated the European insider trading legislation in Inthe domestic prohibitions were replaced by the European initiative that aimed to coordinate the regulation of the insider conduct in order to improve market efficiency.
After this first harmonising initiative, the proper functioning of the market was not yet a fact and the EU decided to enact the Market Abuse Directive hereafter MAD in In the end, it will be clear that the fundamental differences between the three jurisdictions remain off. For the comparison between New Zealand and Australia this is not really a surprise, since the current New Zealand insider trading regime is mainly based on the current Australian regime.
When comparing those two jurisdictions to the current insider trading system within the EU, the same conclusion can be drawn; the European system is roughly the same as the system within New Zealand and Australia.
Only few disparities can be found. This is actually not that peculiar, since the three insider trading systems are based on the same underlying rationale: Existence of insider trading law only matters if the laws are successfully enforced.
Empirical evidence shows that countries with more stringent insider trading laws have a more informative stock price, a more liquid stock market and a more dispersed equity ownership. But the stringency of the laws is useless without effective enforcement of the rules.
Only with good enforcement of the insider trading laws, the costs of the capital within the market will be reduced.
Nonetheless, if effective enforcement is not achieved, the costs of compliance of the insider trading regulation will outweigh the benefits of it.Während andere mit Billigangeboten locken und sich keine Gedanken darüber machen ob die angebotenen Produkte überhaupt noch die die Bezeichnung „LEBENSMITTEL“ verdienen vertrauen wir darauf, dass Konsumenten immer mehr darauf achten, dass sie natürliche Energiespender zu einem fairen Preis bekommen.
My trip to the Kimberley has rekindled my interest in looking at what might be the case in with respect to our Aboriginal people.
I’m using the ‘A’ word rather than ‘indigenous’, for two reasons. Course Overview. This qualifying Law degree is taught by the world-leading, research-active academics based in our prestigious Law School.
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The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day. However the social, economic, and legal positions of slaves were vastly different in different systems of slavery in different times and places.
Slavery appears in the Mesopotamian Code of Hammurabi (c. BC), which refers to it as an established institution. Essay writing service. Are you struggling with an essay?
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The Law of Insider Trading in Australia is a work of academic and practical merit. It will prove an indispensable reference to anybody faced with a question or problem concerning insider trading.
- SJ Maiden, Australian Business Law Review, () 34 ABLR