The mauna loa volcano essay

It is located on the south coast of the island of. This essay is a result of an mauna essay loa email discussion this morning, I asked Dr. Happer to condense and complete that ….

The mauna loa volcano essay

Posted on February 6, by curryja Comments by Greg Goodman Satellite data for the period surrounding the Mt Pinatubo eruption in provide a means of estimating the scale of the volcanic forcing in the tropics. A simple relaxation model is used to examine how temporal evolution of the climate response will differ from the that of the radiative forcing.


Taking this difference into account is essential for proper detection and attribution of the relevant physical processes. Estimations are derived for both the forcing and time-constant of the climate response.

These are found to support values derived in earlier studies which vary considerably from those of current climate models. The implications of these differences in inferring climate sensitivity are discussed. The study reveals the importance of secondary effects of major eruptions pointing to a persistent warming effect in the decade following the eruption.

The inadequacy of the traditional application of linear regression to climate data is highlighted, showing how this will typically lead to erroneous results and thus the likelihood of false attribution.

The implications of this false attribution to the post divergence between climate models and observations is discussed. Analysis of these radiation measurements allows an assessment of the system response to changes in the radiation budget.

Pinatubo eruption provides a particularly useful natural experiment, since the spread of the effects The mauna loa volcano essay centred in the tropics and dispersed fairly evenly between the hemispheres.

The mauna loa volcano essay

The derived scaling factor to convert AOD into radiative flux, supports earlier estimations [2] based on observations from the El Chichon eruption.

These observationally derived values of the strength of the radiative disturbance caused by major stratospheric eruptions are considerably greater than those currently used as input parameters for general circulation climate models GCMs. Method Changes in net TOA radiative flux, measured by satellite, were compared to volcanic forcing estimated from measurements of atmospheric optical depth.

Regional optical depth data, with monthly resolution, are available in latitude bands for four height ranges between 15 and 35 km [DS1] and these values were averaged from 20S to 20N to provide a monthly mean time series for the tropics.

Since optical depth is a logarithmic scale, the values for the four height bands were added at each geographic location. Lacis et al [2] suggest that aerosol radiative forcing can be approximated by a linear scaling factor of AOD over the range of values concerned. This is the approach usually adopted in IPCC reviewed assessments and is used here.

As a result the vertical summations are averaged across the tropical latitude range for comparison with radiation data. One notable effect of the eruption of Mt Pinatubo on tropical energy balance is a variation in the nature of the annual cycle, as see by subtracting the pre-eruption, mean annual variation.

Following the eruption, the residual variability also shows a six monthly cycle. The semi-annual variability changed and only returned to similar levels after the El Nino. Figure 1 showing the variability of the annual cycle in net TOA radiation flux in tropics.

Click to enlarge It follows that using a single period as the basis for the anomaly leaves significant annual residuals. To minimise the residual, three different periods each a multiple of 12 months were used to remove the annual variations: The three resultant anomaly series were combined, ensuring the difference in the means of each period were respected.

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The mean of the earlier, pre-eruption annual cycles was taken as the zero reference for the whole series. There is a clearly repetitive variation during the pre-eruption period that produces a significant downward trend starting 18 months before the Mt.

Since it may be important not to confound this with the variation due to the volcanic aerosols, it was characterised by fitting a simple cosine function. This was subtracted from the fitting period. Though the degree to which this can be reasonably assumed to continue is speculative, it seems some account needs to be taken of this pre-existing variability.

The effect this has on the result of the analysis is assessed. The break of four months in the ERBE data at the end of was filled with the anomaly mean for the period to provide a continuous series.

This involves some approximations.Datasets and Data repositories (List of lists of lists) This is a LIST of. "lists of lists".

Messy presentation to pull together Raw Datasets for my hacks. Suggestions to . Rising gradually to more than 4 km (13, ft) above sea level, Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on our planet. Its long submarine flanks descend to the sea floor an additional 5 km (16, ft), and the sea floor in turn is depressed by Mauna Loa's great mass another 8 km (26, ft).

The Mauna Loa volcano is located in Hawaii and means "Long Mountain" in Hawaiian. It is a giant, basaltic shield volcano. It is one of the largest volcanoes and mountains in the world and has been called the "monarch of mountains".

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As well as IPCC AR5 WG1 chapter 9, this is also discussed in chapter “This provides evidence that some CMIP5 models have a higher transient response to GHGs and a larger response to other anthropogenic forcings (dominated by the effects of aerosols) than the real world (medium confidence).’.

This island is actually made up of five volcanoes, Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, and Kilauea, all in such close proximity that they fused together to form one whole island 5 / Mount Kilauea A volcano consists of a volcanic cone, craters, vents, necks and fissures within its physical form.

Free Essay: The Mauna Loa Volcano The Mauna Loa volcano is located in Hawaii and means "Long Mountain" in Hawaiian. It is a giant, basaltic shield.

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