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The Foundation of Modern Western Music The music of the Renaissance was essentially the beginning of all modern musical thought- the first to truly integrate various forms of harmony with definite structure.
The music provided rapid and significant advancements in harmony within western music, evolving from the parallel lines of Ars Nova and culminating in the base ingredients for tonality and monodic chord analysis all in a relatively short period of two hundred years.
The evolution of Renaissance polyphony expanded tonal harmony through the use of multiple voices and their interval relationships, established aural and music technicality conventions, and provided the groundwork for all tonality based western music.
The foundation of Renaissance polyphony can be found in the organum of the eleventh century and more specifically in the ars nova which came to prominence in the fourteenth century. Organum briefly appeared in the tenth century but was dismissed by the Catholic Church and did not become popular until the eleventh century.
Organum was the first notable use of harmony in the western world and was the first genre to more than one voice part in this case, two. Composers took melodies from Gregorian chant and extended them harmonically with parallel fifths and especially parallel fourths.
The intervals of the perfect fourth, fifth, and octave were considered the only concords during this period and use of other intervals was considered cacophonous. Later organum used stepwise motion within the mode of the composition to reach the concord interval as well as to move in oblique motion to notre dame organum essay help in a unison.
Organum from the Notre Dame school based out of Paris in the thirteenth century even created the first contrary motion, with one voice moving from unison upward a step and the other downward by a minor third to form a perfect fourth interval Ferguson, From late organum the ideas of Ars Nova were established, becoming standardized and prevalent through the writings of composers and music theorists Marchetto of Padua and Phillip de Vitry.
Ars Nova was founded upon three new principles, the first two of which are still felt today in non-serialist music.
The first is the concordance of third and sixth intervals, which became the basis for all modern tonal music. It was also during this period, particularly within the writings of Walter Odington, where the harmonious aspects of major and minor thirds were first theorized.
The second principle is the minimal use of parallel fifths, fourths, and octaves. This ban on the use of parallel fifths and octaves is still prominent today.
Finally, the third principle of Ars Nova is the allowance of small amounts of discord. Discord was used both for the purpose of creating small amounts of tension and release but mostly for passing motion between consonant intervals. Discord was not encouraged, however, and was permitted on the weaker beats of a piece only Ferguson, As Ars Nova moved forward into the early Renaissance it began to expand harmonically to include more oblique and similar motion.
This new concept is referred to as polyphony, or two or more voices moving in melodic independence.
Though Ars Nova also had independent voice movement, the newer polyphony had differed in style and complexity. The new style of polyphony contained both more voices and more variety in its use of harmony between melody lines more variety in the intervals between voices.
The use of modes in music theory was beginning to shift as well, moving from the 12 modes used by the Greeks and in the Middle Ages to the 8 modes considered in modern tonality Reese, These were further expanded with the formal introduction of the accidental in the late fourteenth century into the early Renaissance.
The accidental had been used sparingly for centuries, either lower the seventh scale degree a half step to avoid the tritone with the fourth degree or to accent the third and sixth scale degrees' tendency to resolve to a perfect interval, but found universal use and acceptance only in the Pirrotta.
The early Renaissance polyphonic music was the first true overlap of secular music into uses in sacred music. It became common for composers to use secular tunes as a basis for their melodies, often not even altering them. Composers then layered their compositions with contrapuncture, often with those second melodies chopping and splicing the original melody.
Secular tunes even became the basis for many sixteenth century masses. The practice of using folk melodies continued on after the Renaissance though theoretically banned with the Council of Trentespecially in nationalist and traditionalist composers in the twentieth century.
The undeniable master of involving secular music in sacred polyphony was Josquin des Pres, who based almost all his sacred music compositions on secular tunes.
Josquin was born around the year and was culturally French, though originally of Flemish decent. He was a member of the Papal Choir for 8 years and served as maestro to various cathedrals throughout Milan and Cologne, among others.
Notably works included his 16 masses, which were composed in a paraphrase mass style, and his 61 motets.How to Write the University of Notre Dame Application Essays September 8, | CollegeVine College Essay Team in College Essays, For information on the application essays for other schools, check out CollegeVine’s database of essay guides.
Want help on your Notre Dame application or essays? Organum from the Notre Dame school based out of Paris in the thirteenth century even created the first contrary motion, with one voice moving from unison upward a step and the other downward by a minor third to form a perfect fourth interval (Ferguson, ).
The architect of Notre Dame was Maurice de Sully, the Bishop of Paris. He decided to build it for the growing population of Paris.
He dedicated Notre Dame to the Virgin Mary. Even though construction started in , it wasn't complete until about years later in The whole cathedral tells /5(5).
The Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris was found to be a warehouse to store food in the interior. Napoleon decided to crown himself as an emperor thinking that he would emphasize the important and primacy of the state over the church, later own Josephine was also crowned, and his empress was his Martinique born wife.
Need help with your essay. Singing the Body, Singing the Other, and Ensemble Organum’s Messe de Notre Dame by Asa Trimble Horvitz Class of A thesis submitted to the faculty of Wesleyan University Grotowski, ), this essay explores the broader phenomenon of artists who techniques which may help performers and audiences enter a liminal state together.
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