Case of a notorious American defector from the viewpoint of his handler. In May oftwo and a half years before its decisive victory at Yorktown, the Continental cause was in a precarious state. Stalemate in the north and almost uninterrupted British success in the south had brought not only despair to General Washington's forces and dissension among the revolutionary politicians, but also disenchantment to our French allies.
September 29, Verdict: Major John Andre's trial for espionage sent shock waves through the American colonies by revealing the depth of a treason plot by General Benedict Arnold to hand over the American stronghold at West Point to the British.
Had Andre not been captured and the conspiracy foiled, the American Revolution might well have been crushed. His executioners would have preferred to hang the man with whom Andre consorted: Arnold was a talented field commander and one of that circle of men who were surrogate sons to General George Washington.
Yet he was adept at making enemies. Appointed by Washington to command military forces in Philadelphia while he recovered from war wounds, Arnold's relentless ambition and greed eventually led to complaints to Congress that he was abusing his powers.
Documents would later surface indicating Arnold was much more dishonest than local authorities ever suspected—documents unavailable when they lodged their complaints.
After a list of eight charges wound its way first through Congress and then a haphazard court-martial it was interrupted by wartime eventsit was decided enough evidence existed to uphold two of the accusations. Arnold was found guilty of having used public wagons for private purposes and of having improperly issued a pass allowing a ship, the Channing Nancy, to leave port when all other vessels were quarantined.
Arnold was sentenced to "receive a reprimand" from General Washington. Arnold himself had asked—or more accurately, maneuvered—for a trial. He added, "I wish your Excellency for your long and eminent services, may not be paid in the same coin.
Arnold offered to either immediately enlist or "cooperate on some concealed plan with Sir Henry Clinton. Eventually the persistent Arnold obtained command of the fort at West Pointon the Hudson River in New Yorkand the surrounding area.
He agreed to deliver West Point to Clinton for the extraordinary sum of 20, pounds if the venture were completely successful and 10, pounds if it were not.
To plan the details of the surrender, Arnold and Andre wanted a meeting. Clinton reluctantly agreed but ordered that Andre: If he were to be captured, this would protect Andre from any charge of spying and execution.
The terms of the passes Smith carried allowed only one man to come. Thus, Colonel Beverly Robinson, who was to accompany Andre, was left behind. Rather than going to Smith's house as originally planned, Andre and Arnold met six miles up river, at the foot of Long Clove Mountain.
A British contingent was to attack West Point.
The moves of the opposing forces had to be plotted in advance. Each order Arnold gave to his men had to appear reasonable at the time, yet still lead ultimately to the loss of the fort. The two farmers who had been pressed into rowing the boat that had brought Andre, refused to take him back when he and Arnold were finished.
As daylight broke, Arnold and Andre, his uniform covered by a cloak, rode to Smith's home on the Hudson River within sight of the Vulture. They passed an American sentry, which placed Andre behind American lines.
Several hours later, any hope of slipping Andre back aboard ship was blasted away by an American colonel at nearby Dobbs Ferry. Colonel James Livingston, with a small artillery battery, peppered the frigate, damaging her hull and driving her two miles away. The simplest and safest action for Andre to have taken would have been to ride out in uniform carrying a flag of truce.
Such actions were common as both sides made attempts to negotiate the exchange of prisoners. But Andre, a romantic who enjoyed amateur theatrics, yielded to Smith's insistence that he switch to civilian attire.
Worse still, Andre carried a map and other incriminating documents, the contents of which he could have memorized. Before leaving for West Point, Arnold wrote out three passes, one of which allowed Smith to transport Andre across the Hudson.
But Smith was unwilling to venture again upon the water.Both a traditional adventure story and a moral tale, "Major Andre" is non-fiction at its finest. Like the legend of the starving soldiers at Valley Forge, the Revolutionary War story of the much-admired British spy John Andre has been told and retold by generations of American history urbanagricultureinitiative.com › Books › History › Americas.
Major John Andre has been made a synonym of John André.
Works and bookmarks tagged with Major John Andre will show up in John André's filter. Works and bookmarks tagged with Major John Andre will show up in John André's urbanagricultureinitiative.com John Andre. · John Andre joined the British occupations of New York and Philadelphia, where he lived in Benjamin Franklin’s house.
He was a favorite among colonial society as he was a charming conversationalist, a good singer and a talented urbanagricultureinitiative.com · On October 2, , Major John Andre, a British officer, was hanged for espionage.
His executioners would have preferred to hang the man with whom Andre urbanagricultureinitiative.com /major-john-andre-trial Major John Andre paper soldier - Cut out and assemble the American Revolution soldier Major John Andre!
While best known for his role in Benedict Aurbanagricultureinitiative.com This letter from Major John Andre recounts specific details of the Battle of Germantown. It is extremely content rich and describes the conflict, the surrounding area, and the people.
This letter is a recent acquisition and complements SMS Coll's 9 and urbanagricultureinitiative.com?docId=ead/urbanagricultureinitiative.com