Terminology[ edit ] The degree is abbreviated PhD sometimes Ph. All of these faculties awarded intermediate degrees bachelor of arts, of theology, of laws, of medicine and final degrees. The doctorates in the higher faculties were quite different from the current PhD degree in that they were awarded for advanced scholarship, not original research. No dissertation or original work was required, only lengthy residency requirements and examinations.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Argentina[ edit ] In Argentina the doctorate doctorado  is the highest academic degree. The intention is that candidates produce original contributions in their field knowledge within a frame of academic excellence.
It is reviewed by a Doctoral Committee composed of examiners external to the program and at least one examiner external to the institution. The degree is conferred after a successful dissertation defence. Exceptions are based on their individual academic merit. A second and a third foreign language are other common requirements, although the requirements regarding proficiency commonly are not strict.
The admissions process varies by institution. Some require candidates to take tests while others base admissions on a research proposal application and interview only.
In both instances however, a faculty member must agree prior to admission to supervise the applicant. Requirements usually include satisfactory performance in advanced graduate courses, passing an oral qualifying exam and submitting a thesis that must represent an original and relevant contribution to existing knowledge.
The thesis is examined in a final public oral exam administered by at least five faculty members, two of whom must be external. After completion, which normally consumes 4 years, the candidate is commonly awarded the degree of Doutor Doctor followed by the main area of specialization, e.
Physics, Chemistry, Biological and Life Sciences, etc. All graduate programs in Brazilian public universities are tuition-free mandated by the Brazilian constitution. Competition for graduate financial aid is intense and most scholarships support at most 2 years of Master's studies and 4 years of doctoral studies.
The normal monthly stipend for doctoral students in Brazil is between and USD. A degree of Doutor usually enables an individual to apply for a junior faculty position equivalent to a US Assistant Professor.
Progression to full professorship known as Professor Titular requires that the candidate be successful in a competitive public exam and normally takes additional years. In the federal university system, doctors who are admitted as junior faculty members may progress usually by seniority to the rank of Associate Professor then become eligible to take the competitive exam for vacant full professorships.
In recent years somme initiatives as jointly supervised doctorates e. Bachelor of Arts degree ; 2 a five-year candidate's degree e. Doctor Philosophiaewhich is the higher doctorate. A three-year extended research program, leading to the magister's degree was phased out to meet the international standards of the Bologna Process.
In the disputation, the candidate defends their thesis against three official opponents as well as opponents from the auditorium ex auditorio. The Medical doctorate abbreviated as M. It takes on average three to five years.
Many postgraduate medical and surgical specialties students earn a Doctorate. After finishing a 6-year medical school and one-year internship house officerphysicians and surgeons earn the M. They can then apply to earn a master's degree or a speciality diploma, then an MD degree in a specialty.
Geriatrics means a doctorate in Geriatricswhich is equivalent to a Ph. Finland[ edit ] The Finnish requirement for the entrance into doctoral studies is a master's degree or equivalent.
All universities have the right to award doctorates. Demonstrate understanding of their field and its meaning, while preparing to use scientific or scholarly study in their field, creating new knowledge.Connecting professional level students with over + professional level writers at urbanagricultureinitiative.com If you need professional academic help, contact us.
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Order papers from our professional team that offers paper writing on any type of topic. Fast, cheap and unique! The University of Arizona (UA) is the flagship institution in the State of Arizona and offers graduate programs in more than areas of study. Graduate programs of study are described here in our Graduate Catalog and Program Descriptions.
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