Posted on November 13, by Scott Alexander I. Medieval Icelandic crime victims would sell the right to pursue a perpetrator to the highest bidder. Somali judges compete on the free market; those who give bad verdicts get a reputation that drives away future customers.
As CPU power increased in the sixties and early seventies, industrial engineers began to study the terminal entry programs of mainframes to optimize entry times and reduce mis-types.
The earliest mainframe query protocols still in use, i. Essentially, operators were trained to perform computer language interpretation in their heads. That means 'functional control mode, data access program subsystem number seven selected, access data file reference "Project Charlie, Book one," page sixty-seven, optical format, output on hard copy unit, one copy.
IBM directed most of its efforts at mainframe development, but also started a small division to design and produce a "personal computer", which, despite its obscure operating system, would recreate the home-built small computer market.
In the PARC team began work on the Alto computer system as "an experiment in personal computing, to study how a small, low cost machine could be used to replace facilities then provided History and development of operating systems essay by much larger shared systems.
Alto, and the later Star computers, derived many of these features from cognitive psychology work. The designers attempted to communicate with users more effectively by making the computer communicate in ways the brain uses more readily; using icons for instance, because the visual part of the brain can track their presence and state much better than words.
They developed ways of organizing information in patterns which the eye can track through more easily, drawing attention to the work in progress.
They developed the model of WYSIWYG what you see is what you get to improve print proofing performance, and found through testing that the digital representation of black text on a sheet of white paper increased information legibility and retention.
The Star interface added the concept of the desktop metaphor, and overlapping and resizable windows. PARC discovered along the way that whole new subsystems had to be developed to enable their technology to work; but once demonstrated, testing showed dramatic improvements in productivity, job satisfaction, and reduced training time for users.
PARC's research clearly showed that a computer system of sufficient power could be optimized for human use, and that optimization would be paid back with a range of productive and profitable behavior and attitude improvements. DOS was a cryptic command line interface, a direct descendant of mainframes.
The PC had many limitations, including memory access, power, and lack of color or graphic standards; but it had enough productivity to warrant purchases of millions of units.
In exchange for Apple stock, Xerox would allow Apple to tour the PARC facility and incorporate some of their research into future products. Apple took elements of the Star interface, refined them and produced the Lisa computer. The Lisa failed, owing to its cost, lack of software availability, and other factors.
Apple's next try with an enhanced and friendlier Lisa interface was the Macintosh, which found a small market foothold in the design and publishing markets.
Apple was committed to its GUI, spending millions of dollars over the next ten years to research and implement enhancements; their commitment paid off in the late eighties as the desktop publishing market exploded and Apple's interface was widely acclaimed by the artists, writers, and publishers using the computers.
Microsoft, following the Apple GUI standards, developed a spreadsheet for the Mac which set new standards for ease of use. This product was, of course, Excel. Apple worked with artists, psychologists, teachers, and users to craft revisions to their software and developer guidelines.
For example, in California they sponsored an elementary school where every student had an Apple Computer. Each year the teachers and Apple programmers spent the summer planning new lessons and making enhancements to the software used to teach them, because Apple believed that children give the truest reactions to basic interface issues.
Although a distant second in number of systems behind IBM compatibles today, Apple's closed hardware and software implementation at one point made them the largest personal computer manufacturer in the world, eclipsing IBM in Apple believes that the principal contributor to their success has been the consistent implementation of user interfaces across applications.
Macintosh users have been able to easily master multiple applications because commands and behavior were the same across applications: Command-S is always save. This partnership later dissolved, but Microsoft went on to take user interface lessons learned from their successful Macintosh products, Excel and Word, and created a series of graphic shells running on top of DOS which could mimic many of the Macintosh GUI features.
Microsoft and Apple became involved in extensive litigation over ownership of many of these features, but the case was eventually dismissed.
Later version of the Windows operating system became increasingly Macintosh-like. Today Microsoft gives little credit to Apple for pioneering and validating many of the ideas which they have copied.
Like DOS, UNIX is a child of the seventies and inherits a powerful and obscure command line interface from mainframes; unlike DOS, it had been used in networked applications and high-end engineering workstations for most of its life.
Which of these will have greater long-term impact is open to debate, but it appears that the browser has had widespread effect on GUI design, and on human culture. With limited interaction in forms the designers were forced back to basics, building and testing iterations.
Fortunately, HTML is relatively easy to create, though some would suggest, difficult to master. Over time the legacy browser problem will be solved as users upgrade their systems, and bandwidth issues should also improve. But the important thing learned by GUI designers from the Web is that screens do not have to be complicated to be useful - if the form solves a need and is easy to use, then people will use it.
Facilitated by the Web, software designers can collaborate and produce startling work in short timeframes. LINUX is small and reliable, yet supports a large base of usable processes.
Along with Java, LINUX represents a possible future of portable software running on compatible systems anytime, anywhere.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. The history of the personal computer as mass-market consumer electronic devices effectively began in with the introduction of microcomputers, although some mainframe and minicomputers had been applied as single-user systems much earlier. UNIX Introduction What is UNIX?
UNIX is an operating system which was first developed in the s, and has been under constant development ever since. History of operating systems. This article needs additional citations for verification. In technical and development circles the old restricted sense of an OS persists because of the continued active development of embedded operating systems for all kinds of devices with a data-processing component.
EXAMPLE OF MULTI-USER OPERATING SYSTEM The common examples of multi-user operating system' include VMS, UNIX, and mainframe operating systems which include MVS system. A single user multi-tasking operating system is an operating system is capable of allowing multiple software processors to run at the same time.
Significant Energy E vents in Earth's and Life's History as of Energy Event.
Timeframe. Significance. Nuclear fusion begins in the Sun. c. billion years ago (“bya”) Provides the power for all of Earth's geophysical, geochemical, and ecological systems, with the .