Part of his early childhood was spent in Greece, and by the time he first attended school he still had only a limited command of English.
Sometimes people use the term unconsciously to express how serious they are in accomplishing a task. But the real question still emerge, what is Motivation?
Motivation according to Jaja is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation. A motive or drive is a need that is sufficiently pressing to drive a person to act in a goal directed manner. Motivation can also be seen as a driving force that initiates and directs behavior.
We can also say that it is a temporal or dynamic state within a person which is not concerned with his or her personality. However, we would be comparing in this work, motivational theories of Maslow, Herzberg and McClelland with a quest to understanding their own view as well as see the similarities criticisms as well as differences between these theories.
At the least was the physiological needs and the highest was the self-actualization. According to BaridamMaslow based his theory of human motivation on the following assumptions: Individuals have certain needs that influence their behavior, only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior, satisfied needs do not act as motivators.
Maslow hypothesized that within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of five needs which are: It includes growth, achieving ones potential and self-fulfillment. As each of the needs becomes substantially satisfied, the next stage becomes dominant Robbins et al A more realistic description of the hierarchy would be in terms of decreasing percentages of satisfaction as potency increases.
Also, the assumption that only one level of need is operational at any point in time is challenged.
Maslow viewed human needs as being static whereas in reality these needs are dynamic. Finally, the theory indicates that a satisfied need is not a motivator. But it is true that individual needs are never fully or permanently satisfied Baridam This research undertaken by Herzberg in the s where he interviewed engineers, accountants and managers at Pittsburgh, United states of America because of their growing importance in the business world.
This research has broadened the understanding of motivating factors and job satisfaction in the work place. From his research, he concluded that employees have two set of needs in the work place. He described them as Hygiene factors and Motivator factors. Hygiene factors satisfiers include salary, working condition and fringe benefits.
He also stated that these factors on their own do not lead to job satisfaction but their absence can create dissatisfaction.
Herzberg found that a combination of these factors increased motivation and improved individual performance. The critical incident technique he used by asking people to look at themselves retrospectively does not substantially provide a vehicle for expression of other factors to be mentioned.
This methodology may cause people to recall only the most recent experiences. Satisfaction may not be directly related to job performance. While some are motivated by job context variables, others find favor in job content factors depending on his particular circumstance.
He identified five sets of human needs on priority basis and their satisfaction in motivating employees while Herzberg refers to hygiene factors and motivating factors in his theory. Hygiene factors are dissatisfiers while motivating factors motivate subordinate.
Hierarchical arrangement of need is not given.
It suggests the motivating factors which can be used effectively. The theory is based on actual information collected by Herzberg after interviewing engineers and accountants. It is mostly applicable to poor and developing countries where money is still a big motivating factor.
It is on the other hand applicable to rich and developed countries where money is less important motivating factor. Jaja McClelland stated that we all have these three types of motivation regardless of age, sex, race or culture. The type of motivation that each individual is driven by is changed by life experiences and the opinion of their culture.
He also opined that those in top level management positions should have a high need for power and a low need for affiliation.
People with a high need for achievement will succeed best when given projects with attainable goals and although individuals with a need for achievement can make good managers, they are not suited to being in top management positions. He also believes that people with high need for affiliation may not be good top managers but will be team players and are best suited for cooperative work environment.Jul 02, · a critical review and comparism between maslow, herzberg and mcclelland’s theory of needs INTRODUCTION To every individual who exerts his/her energy towards accomplishing a particular task, we often say “This individual is Motivated”.
The disadvantage to the theory is that it is still based on humans. As humans we are naturally going to make mistakes. The theory works on the basis of having harmony among people in which unity forms to create a strong management team. TZ urbanagricultureinitiative.com oai:RePEc:hal:journl:hal RePEc:hal RePEc:hal:journl:hal preprint Micro Processes and.
DESCRIPTION. This essay is a critical analysis, evaluation and review on Henry Fayol's Organizational Management Theory.
Fayolism. French mining engineer Henri Fayol is the father of business management theories. Fayolism was a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized the role of management in organizations, developed around by the French management theorist Henri Fayol (–).
It was through Fayol's work as a philosopher of administration that he contributed most widely to the theory and practice of organizational management.