Read more Global Warming-new-findings Global Warming new findings the Environmental science that studies the behavior of individuals, households, and organizations, when they manage or use scarce resources, which have alternative uses, to achieve desired ends. Agents are assumed to act rationally, have multiple desirable ends in sight, limited resources to obtain these ends, a set of stable preferences, a definite overall guiding objective, and the capability of making a choice. Global Warming is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time. This modern field of study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric sciences and a subfield of physical geography, which is one of the Earth sciences.
Subsequent scientific investigations soon led to what is now the most widely accepted explanation of what was happening. Chlorine compounds derived mostly from chlorinated fluorocarbon gases CFCsmass-produced by industrial societies for a variety of purposes, reacted in the stratospheric clouds over Antarctica during the cold, dark, winter months to produce forms of chlorine that rapidly deplete stratospheric ozone when the first rays of the Antarctic spring sunlight arrive Solomon, Massive destruction of ozone followed very quickly, until natural circulation patterns replenished the supply and closed what came to be known as ''the ozone hole.
To understand this event and the political controversies that followed in its wake, one has to reach back through almost a century's worth of history, long before CFCs existed.
Until almost the end of the nineteenth century, refrigeration was a limited technology, based almost entirely on natural sources of supply.
Urban Americans who could afford to drink chilled beverages relied on metropolitan ice markets, which cut ice from local ponds in the winter and stored it in warehouses for use during the warm months of the year.
Breweries and restaurants were the heaviest users of this stored winter ice, which was sometimes shipped hundreds of miles to provide refrigeration.
Boston ice merchants, for instance, were regularly delivering ice to consumers in Charleston, South Carolina, and even the Caribbean by the fourth decade of the nineteenth century Hall, ; Cummings, ; Lawrence, Page 55 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Understanding the Human Dimensions.
The National Academies Press. In the United States, pork was the most popular form of preserved meat because of the ease with which its decay could be arrested by salt.
Beef was much less popular in preserved form, so those who ate it preferred to purchase it freshly slaughtered from local butchers.
Then, in the s, meatpackers began experimenting with ice-refrigerated railroad cars that could deliver dressed beef, slaughtered and chilled in Chicago, to consumers hundreds of miles away. Dressed beef, which was cheaper than fresh beef for a variety of reasons, soon took the country by storm, driving many wholesale butchers out of business and giving the Chicago packing companies immense economic power.
The packers initially relied on complicated ice storage and delivery networks, cutting and storing millions of tons of winter ice along the railroad routes that delivered beef from Chicago to urban customers throughout the East. Their investment in ice storage technology contributed to dramatic shifts in the American food supply and was soon affecting foods other than meat.
Fruits and vegetables from California and Florida and dairy products from metropolitan hinterlands throughout the East, were among the most important to benefit from the new ice delivery system Cronon, ; Yeager, ; Kujovich, ; Giedion, ; Clemen, ; Swift and Van Vlissingen, ; Neyhart, ; Unfer, ; Fowler, But natural ice was unreliable: Although the principle of mechanical refrigeration, in which compressed gas was made to expand rapidly and so lower temperatures, had been known since the middle of the eighteenth century, its first application on a large commercial scale was not found until the second half of the nineteenth century Anderson, Urban brewers, especially in the warm climates of the South, were the first to make wide use of it.
As the meatpackers sought to solve their problems with erratic winter ice supply, they too adopted mechanical refrigeration on a large scale after By the first quarter of the twentieth century, the delivery of perishable foods throughout the United States—and international food shipments as well—had come to depend on mechanical refrigeration.
By drastically lowering the rate at which food decayed and hence making perishable crops available to consum- Page 56 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The most widespread early refrigeration technology depended on compressed ammonia gas, which easily produced desired drops in temperature for effective food storage.Chapter Global Climate Change.
STUDY. PLAY. Climate. policymakers, and others over these issues because some critics of global climate change have a vested interest in continuing the widespread use of fossil fuels, and they may purposely cast doubt on scientific findings.
Natural causes of warming/cooling Physical observations of. Outline of Cause-Effect Essay, Global Warming In Surabaya Title: Global Warming In Surabaya. I.
Intro. i. General Statement: Global warming is a Outline of Cause-Effect Essay, Global Warming In S Global Warming In Surabaya, Cause-Effect Essay;. CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL WARMING Anjali Goel1 and Ranjana Bhatt2* CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING The causes of global warming may be natural or Mumbai, Chennai, etc.) and some odd island nations such as Maldives, Bangladesh, etc.
Anil Kumar De and Arnab Kumar De (). The global warming controversy concerns the public debate Disputes over the key scientific facts of global warming are more prevalent in the media release a study that reported the evidence for imminent global warming found during the Clinton administration was based on now-dated satellite findings and wrote off the evidence and.
Global Warming DEFINITION OF GLOBAL WARMING  SPEEDING UP THE PROCESS  GROWING EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING  ANOMALIES AND REFUTATIONS  SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS  INADEQUATE ACTION AND NEEDED TRANSFORMATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Understanding the causes of and responses to global warming [8.
Models and research indicate that global warming is expected to outstrip the global average temperature set at between 1 °C and 2 °C, to grow by between 3 °C and 4 °C at the close of the century (Rogerson, ).
Such a temperature increase will likely have an impact on flora and fauna.