While it largely stopped being a concern after the release of Python 3. Since I had seen variants of these questions several times An essay in modern c programming the ansi standard c language the years, I started this FAQ as an intermittently updated record of my thoughts on the topic, with updates generally being prompted by new iterations of the questions.
You can see the full history of changes in the source repo. The views expressed below are my own. Several core developers including Guido have reviewed and offered comments on this document at various points in time, and aside from Guido noting that I was incorrect about his initial motivation in creating Python 3, none of them has raised any objections to specific points or the document in general.
I am also not writing on behalf of the Python Software Foundation of which I am a nominated Fellow nor on behalf of Red Hat my current employer. However, I do use several Red Hat specific examples when discussing enterprise perception and adoption of the Python platform - effectively bridging that gap between early adopters and the vast majority of prospective platform users is kinda what Red Hat specialises in, so I consider them an important measure of the inroads Python 3 is making into more conservative development communities.
There were several extensive discussions of the state of the Python 3 transition at PyCon US in Montreal, starting at the language summit, and continuing throughout the conference. These helped clarify many of the remaining points of contention, and resulted in a range of changes to Python 3.
Note If anyone is interested in writing about these issues in more formal media, please get in touch to check if particular answers are still accurate.
As with all essays on these pages, feedback is welcome via the issue tracker or Twitter. Yes, we know that some sections of the community had never personally experienced the problems with the Python 2 Unicode model that this migration was designed to eliminate, or otherwise preferred the closer alignment between the Python 2 text model and the POSIX text model.
Yes, we know that many of those problems had already been solved by some sections of the community to their own satisfaction. It should be at least possible for users to start learning the basics of Python without having to first learn English as a prerequisite even if English remains a requirement for full participation in the global Python and open source ecosystems.
It is my perspective that the web and GUI developers have the right idea: In large part, the Python 3 redesign involved taking Unicode handling principles elaborated in those parts of the community and building them into the core design of the language.
Why was Python 3 made incompatible with Python 2? This included the removal of classic classes, changing integer division to automatically promote to a floating point result retaining the separate floor division operation and changing the core string type to be based on Unicode by default.
With a compatibility break taking place anyway, the case was made to just include some other changes in that process like converting print to a functionrather than going through the full deprecation process within the Python 2 series.
If it had just been about minor cleanups, the transition would likely have been more straightforward, but also less beneficial. However, the changes to the text model in Python 3 are one of those ideas that has profoundly changed the way I think about software, and we receive similar feedback from many other users that never really understood how Unicode worked in Python 2, but were able to grasp it far more easily in Python 3.
Note For a more complete version of this answer that places it in the wider industry context of Unicode adoption, see this article of mine on the Red Hat Developer Blog: The Transition to Multilingual Programming with Python I also gave a presentation on the topic at Python Australiawhich is available online here The core Unicode support in the Python 2 series has the honour of being documented in PEP Guido, along with the wider Python and software development communities, learned a lot about the best techniques for handling Unicode in the six years between the introduction of Unicode support in Python 2.
One of the most important guidelines for good Unicode handling is to ensure that all encoding and decoding occurs at system boundaries, with all internal text processing operating solely on Unicode data. One reason this approach is problematic is that it means the traceback for an unexpected UnicodeDecodeError or UnicodeEncodeError in a large Python 2.
Instead, you have to trace the origins of the data in the failing operation, and try to figure out where the unexpected 8-bit or Unicode code string was introduced. By contrast, Python 3 is designed to fail fast in most situations: The implicit nature of the conversions in Python 2 also means that encoding operations may raise decoding errors and vice-versa, depending on the input types and the codecs involved.
The result is invalid data, but Python will happily pass it on to other applications in its corrupted form.
The general guiding philosophy of the text model in Python 3 is essentially: There are a large number of Unicode handling bugs in the Python 2 standard library that have not been, and will not be, fixed, as fixing them within the constraints of the Python 2 text model is considered too hard to be worth the effort to put that effort into context: The revised text model in Python 3 also means that the primary string type is now fully Unicode capable.
One key consequence of this is that the interpreter core in Python 3 is far more tolerant of paths that contain Unicode characters on Windows so, for example, having a non-ASCII character in your username should no longer cause any problems with running Python scripts from your home directory on Windows.
That error handler is also useful in other cases where applications need to tolerate mismatches between declared encodings and actual data - while it does share some of the problems of the Python 2 Unicode model, it at least has the virtue of only causing problems in the case of errors either in the input data or the declared encoding, where Python 2 could get into trouble in the presence of multiple data sources with different encodings, even if all the input was correctly encoded in its declared encoding.
Python 3 also embeds Unicode support more deeply into the language itself.
With the primary string type handling the full Unicode range, it became practical to make UTF-8 the default source encoding instead of ASCII and adjust many parts of the language that were previously restricted to ASCII text such as identifiers to now permit a much wider range of Unicode characters.
This permits developers with a native language other than English to use names in their own language rather than being forced to use names that fit within the ASCII character set.Paper II-Modern poetry and General Essay Credits: 4 1 to 20 poems for Modern Poetry Prescribed Text: ,Programming in ANSI C, TMH Publishing Company Ltd.
2. Reference Books. 4 Objective of the course This course train the students to solve the problems using C language Course outline I Summation of Series: 1. Sin(x), 2. Cos(x), 3. The C programming language and its direct descendants like C++, C#, Objective-C, and many other programming languages based on C are by far the most popular programming 1/5(1).
- C - C / C++: A powerful high-level computer programming language suited for creating operating systems and complex applications. Designed by Dennis Ritchie at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the s, the C language was developed to allow UNIX to run on a variety of computers.
ODLIS Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science by Joan M. Reitz Now available in print! Order a copy of the hardcover or paperback from Libraries Unlimited. Code with C is a comprehensive compilation of Free projects, source codes, books, and tutorials in Java, PHP,.NET,, Python, C++, C, and more.
Our main mission is to help out programmers and coders, students and learners in general, with relevant resources and materials in the field of computer programming. The high-level programming language was created to eliminate machine dependency.
Languages such as COBOL, FORTRAN, BASIC and C were designed to run on many different computers. However.