An analysis of the statue of ramesses ii in the university of pennsylvania museum of archaeology and

Strengthening Egyptian laws regarding theft and vandalism of Changes to law of have imposed more severe penalties for antiquities-related crimes, and a new law, will make it possible for us to pursue legal action in Egypt against international offenders suspected of theft or vandalism to monuments. The theft of antiquities will be a crime under the new law. Also, the SCA now holds the rights to replicas of antiquities and a certain number of monuments will be trademarked.

An analysis of the statue of ramesses ii in the university of pennsylvania museum of archaeology and

This reconstruction and other bronze and leather armours, corselets, helmets, shields, greaves, swords, axes, etc. Mask of this sort were also produced in pottery and they were possibly used as insets for large statues made of wood.

This example has two holes at the top on either side and it is possible that these held two horns, the resulting face representing that of a Sherden warrior. The general features of this mask remind the aspect of the warriors represented in the bronze statuettes from Sardinia.

Having reviewed the history of Sherden in the Near East, a question remains to be answered: The Egyptian sources only inform us that they came overseas. Four main propositions have been put forward as to the origin of the Sherden: The first one argued that, on the analogy of the fact that the original homeland of the Tyrsenians is traced back to Lydia by ancient authors, the Sherden are more likely to originate from western Anatolia as well, where the name of the capital of the Lydians, Sardis, and related toponyms like mount Sardena and the Sardanion plain and an ethnonym like Sardonians would be reminiscent of their presence.

Accordingly, the Sherden were considered to be on their way from their original home in Lydia to their later home in Sardinia at the time of the upheavals of the Sea Peoples.

In the case of the Sherden, however, the literary evidence from ancient authors to back up their eastern origin is absent: Evidence favour the second hypothesis is the dirk sword such as the Sherden used which is illustrated in cylinder seals of the East centuries before the first encounter of the Sherden with Egypt, and was among the weapons of the Hittite.

An analysis of the statue of ramesses ii in the university of pennsylvania museum of archaeology and

What is known of the Aegean or Illirian does not suggest that they favored that sword. The dirk sword indicateds the East, the Semitic and Hurrian regions, as possible places of origin of the Sherden.

Sherden personal name may support that origin.

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The father of the Sherden of the Ugarit table bears a Semitic name: Also the image of one captured Sherden chief represented in the Medinet Habu temple closely resembles that of Semites as the Egyptians habitually portrayed them, and also suggests that Sherden were native to the East with its ancient Semitic population.

However, this idea is tied to the theory that the primary factor in Late Bronze Age-Iron Age transition was massive pillaging and piracy on the part of certain groups in Aegean. More revealing is the archaeological evidence presented for the forth theory which drew our attention to some similarities of the Egyptian depictions of Sherden with statue-menhirs from southern Corsica, depicting so-called Torre-builders, who are identical with the Nuraghe-builders from Sardinia.

The statue-menhirs in question are assigned on the basis of C14 datings to the period between and BC, with a margin of error of years.

They give the impression of a society of which the members are proud of their martial qualities and hence excellently fit for service as mercenaries, in which capacity we encountered the Sherden in the Egyptian and Levantine sources.

Furthermore several similarity with the Egyptian depictions of Sherden are also present in some of the XI to VI century BC bronze statuette attested in Sardinia as well as ships representation and some Bronze Age weapons found in the island settlements.

Worthy to be mentioned is also a stele from the ancient Sardinia city of Nora where the word Srdn in Phoneicians symbols dated between 9th and 8th century BC seems to be the oldest so far attested in the west Mediterranean area.

Even if on the basis of the combined evidence from Corsica and Sardinia, the one presenting the closest parallels for Sherden as depicted in the Egyptian memorials and the other furnishing evidence for contacts with the eastern Mediterranean during the later Bronze Age, it is difficult to to conclude if the Sherden originated from this part of the Central Mediterranean or their later move to this area at the time of the upheavals of the Sea Peoples.

Indeed the fact that the Greek sources are agreed that the original name of the Sardinia island was Ichnussa, that the Sherden were circumcised and their image sometimes closely resembles that of Semites, makes the later hypothesis more reasonable.

Bronze Statuettes from Sardinia c. The reproduction is based on some bronze statuettes of Nuragic warriors dated not earlier than the Final Bronze Age. Even if the general design of the cap is different from the ones represented in the Egyptian sources, this kind of horned helmet could had its origin from the ones worn by the Sherden.

Now, the Philistines are generally considered newcomers in the Levant, settling in their pentapolis consisting of the towns Asdod, Askelon, Gaza, Ekron, and Gath at the time of the upheavals of the Sea Peoples.

Indeed in the battles against the Lybians some warriors which may be identified as Peleset have been recruited together the Sherden in the Ramesses III army.

This has induced some scholars to assume that the settlement of the Philistines in Canaan took place under Egyptian supervision. Furthermore, the continuity of Egyptian influence in the hinterland of the Philistine pentapolis might suggest to us that the Egyptian pharaoh maintained a nominal claim on the land conquered by the Philistines and considered them as vassals guarding his frontiers.

In this relief from Medinet Habu the Peleset or Denyen are represented with a medium size round shiled with several embossed elements on its surface. They are equipped with a light kiton, a long sword beared on the chest and a long spear.

An analysis of the statue of ramesses ii in the university of pennsylvania museum of archaeology and

The helmet seems different from the typic "feathered" ones being its lower part similar to a rigid cap which covers the entire head including the ears. The Peleset are always represented with the " feathered " headdress and mostly of them are equipped with medium size round shield small sword or dagger and long spear.

In the same land battle representation from Medinet Habu relief the Peleset are shown also fighting on six spooken wheeled Near East style chariots equipped with lateral quivers for bow and arrows.

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This representation is very interesting being the Peleset on chariots represented only armed with spears and shields like mostly of the Aegean charioteers instead of bow and arrows which were instead the typic weaponry of the Near Eastern charioteers.

Interesting representation of a Peleset killed by an Egyptian warrior in the Medinet Habu temple relief. The Peleset is equipped with the typic "feathered" helmet with embossed ring and a V banded corselet which seems in this case made of fabric, linen or other soft material.

He is represented, together other prisoners, on the wall of the norther collonate at Medinet Habu. He seems to be represented with a different headdress than the typic "feathered" helmet.The term "Sea Peoples" is a moder name given to various seaborne and land invaders, raiders and a loose confederation of clans who troubled the lands of the Near East and Egypt during the final period of the Bronze Age.

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Ramesses II

Information on all facets of K state education programs with links to a variety of resources . World-renowned archaeologist Zahi Hawass is the former Egyptian Minister of Antiquities and Director of Excavations at Giza, Saqqara, Bahariya Oasis, and the Valley of .

Ramesses II as a child (Cairo Museum) The great Sesostris (Rameses II) in the Battle of Khadesh Structure Outside of the station used to be the statue of Ramses II that was relocated to Memphis, Egypt, 12 mile. such as the University of Vermont, San Francisco State University, Oriental Institute of Chicago, University of.

While visiting the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology, I found numerous works of art that interested me. I was able to appreciate these works more than before because of the knowledge I now possess after having taken .

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