When rain falls, the first drops of water are intercepted by the leaves and stems of the vegetation. This is usually referred to as interception storage. Figure 8 Schematic diagram illustrating relationship between rainfall, infiltration and runoff Source: Thereafter, surface puddles, ditches, and other depressions are filled depression storageafter which runoff is generated.
Vegetation analysis of the Mediterranean region of Nile Delta K. The suggested vegetation types are well segregated along the DCA axis one which reflects soil moisture, salinity as indicated by EC valuesfertility as indicated by the organic matter and nitrogen contents and species diversity gradients.
In general, soil moisture and soil fertility increase and species diversity decreases with the following sequence of vegetation types: Echinops spinosissimus-Ononis serrata on inland sand dunes, Pan- cratium maritimum on coastal sand dunes, Halocnemum strobilaceum-Salsola kali in saline sand deposits, Atriplex halimus-Chenopodium murale along the terraces and slopes of drains, Arthrocnemum glaucum-Tamarix nilotica in salt marshes, Chenopodium murale along the slopes of drains, Phragmites australis along the littoral zones of drains, and Lemna gibba-Potamogeton crispus in the water zone.
This sequence reflects also a gradient of human interference, starting with the vegetation of the less disturbed habitats sand dunes and saline sand deposits and ending with the fully man-made habitats drain zones. The Mediterranean region in Egypt contains the most Due to the currently increase in the Egyptian pop- valuable rangeland in the country.
The region is known ulation, the coast of Delta is subjected to increased to have enjoyed prosperity from the land-use view- human disturbance. Drains have been constructed to point as early as Graeco-Roman times.
Uncontrolled minimize water-logging and salinity hazards, and the cutting, grazing and farming since the eleventh cen- cultivation of salt-tolerant crops, like rice, has con- tury A. Among Zahran et al.
Two-way indicator species analy- of the soil factors and human interference in influenc- sis TWlNSPANas a classification technique, and ing the types of vegetation that occur. The study has detrended correspondence analysis, as an ordination involved the use of multivariate statistical analyses and one, were applied to the cover estimates of species the calculation of species diversity indices.
Species richness alpha-diversity of each vegeta- Study area tion cluster was calculated as the average number of species per stand, and species turnover beta-diversity The study area extends for a distance of about km as the ratio between the total species recorded in along the Deltiac coast, from Abu-Qir in the east to a certain vegetation cluster and its alpha-diversity.
Three soil samples were collected from profiles 0- Climatologically, December and January are the 50 cm of each sampled stand. Soil texture was deter- coldest and wettest months, while July and August mined by the use of Bouyoucos hydrometer, and the are the hottest and driest.
The following is a compari- results used to calculate the percentages of sand, silt son between long-term averages from to and clay. Soil extracts of 5 gm soil samples were prepared using 2.
The total N was estimated by the micro-Kjeldahl Two-hundred and six stands were selected so as to method. Potassium, Ca and Na were estimated by represent the prevailing physiographic and physiog- flame photometry, while Fe an Mg by atomic absorp- nomic variations in the study area.
The main habitats tion spectrophotometry. Molybdenum blue and indo- recognized in the study area are: All these procedures were according salt marshes, and the 4 zones of drains terrace, slope, to Jackson and Allen et al.
The sampling process was One-way analysis of variance ANOVA was carried out during March-Maywhen most of applied to assess the significance of variation in the species were expected to be growing.
In sampling each community and soil variables in relation to the identi- stand, minimum level of disturbance was ensured. Tukey's studentized range test In each stand, species present were recorded.
The was applied as a complementary test to the ANO- plant cover was estimated quantitatively, using the VA in order to assess the significance of difference line intercept method Canfield Elevation data is commonly used in landscape analysis, but it is also quite useful in vegetation analysis.
This exercise will walk you through basic analysis of a LiDAR point cloud to . R, G, B. Potential Information Content 4,3,2. The standard "false color" composite.
Vegetation appears in shades of red, urban areas are cyan blue, and soils vary from dark to . Abstract. Vegetation Indices (VIs) obtained from remote sensing based canopies are quite simple and effective algorithms for quantitative and qualitative evaluations of vegetation cover, vigor, and growth dynamics, among other applications.
In a global analysis, researchers in the College of Forestry at Oregon State University have mapped former carnivore ranges, abundance of . Thirty-four vegetation clusters identified in the present study, after the application of TWINSPAN and DCA multivariate techniques, were assigned into 8 vegetation types, each of definite.
There has been a significant advancement in the application of statistical tools in plant pathology during the past four decades. These tools include multivariate analysis of disease dynamics involving principal component analysis, cluster analysis, factor analysis, pattern analysis, discriminant analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, correspondence analysis.