Could you give me a description of the field? What does a Computer Software Engineer do? Computer software engineers apply the principles and techniques of computer science, engineering, and mathematical analysis to the design, development, testing, and evaluation of the software and the systems that enable computers to perform their many applications.
Challenges to moral responsibility Moral responsibility is about human action and its intentions and consequences FisherEshleman Generally speaking a person or a group of people is morally responsible when their voluntary actions have morally significant outcomes that would make it appropriate to blame or praise them.
If she manages to pull the person from the water we are likely to praise her, whereas if she refuses to help we may blame her. Ascribing morally responsibility establishes a link between a person or a group of people and someone or something that is affected by the actions of this person or group.
The person or group that performs the action and causes something to happen is often referred to as the agent. The person, group or thing that is affects by the action is referred to as the patient.
Establishing a link in terms of moral responsibility between the agent and the patient can be done both retrospectively as well as prospectively. That is, sometimes ascriptions of responsibility involve giving an account of who was at fault for an accident and who should be punished. It can also be about prospectively determining the obligations and duties a person has to fulfill in the future and what she ought to do.
However, the circumstances under which it is appropriate to ascribe moral responsibility are not always clear. On the one hand the concept has varying meanings and debates continue on what sets moral responsibility apart from other kinds of responsibility Hart The concept is intertwined and sometimes overlaps with notions of accountability, liability, blameworthiness, role-responsibility and causality.
Opinions also differ on which conditions warrant the attribution of moral responsibility; whether it requires an agent with free will or not and whether humans are the only entities to which moral responsibility can be attributed see the entry on moral responsibility.
Individuals and institutions generally act with and in sociotechnical systems in which tasks are distributed among human and technological components, which mutually affect each other in contingent ways Bijker, Hughes and Pinch When something goes wrong, a retrospective account of what happened is expected and the more complex the system, the more challenging is the task of ascribing responsibility Johnson and Powers The increasing pervasiveness of computer technologies poses various challenges to figuring out what moral responsibility entails and how it should be properly ascribed.
To explain how computing complicates the ascription of responsibility we have to consider the conditions under which it makes sense to hold someone responsible.
Despite the ongoing philosophical debates on the issue, most analysis of moral responsibility share at least the following three conditions Eshleman ; Jonas There should be a causal connection between the person and the outcome of actions. A person is usually only held responsible if she had some control over the outcome of events.
The subject has to have knowledge of and be able to consider the possible consequences of her actions. We tend to excuse someone from blame if they could not have known that their actions would lead to a harmful event. The subject has to be able to freely choose to act in certain way.
That is, it does not make sense to hold someone responsible for a harmful event if her actions were completely determined by outside forces.
A closer look at these three conditions shows that computing can complicate the applicability of each of these conditions. It does not make sense to blame someone for an accident if she could not have avoided it by acting differently or if she had no control over the events leading up to the accident.
Tracing the sequence of events that led to a computer-related catastrophic incident, such as a plane crash, usually leads in many directions, as such incidents are seldom the result of a single error or mishap.Definition of working conditions: The conditions in which an individual or staff works, including but not limited to such things as amenities, physical environment, stress and noise levels, degree of safety or danger, and the like.
Computer hardware engineers research, design, develop, and test computer systems and components such as processors, circuit boards, memory devices, networks, and routers.
Employment of computer hardware engineers is projected to grow 5 percent from Entry-level education: Bachelor's degree. Computer software engineers apply the principles and techniques of computer science, engineering, and mathematical analysis to the design, development, testing, What does a Computer Software Engineer do?
Could you give me a description of the field? 1 INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN INTRODUCTION Systems are created to solve problems. One can think of the sys-tems approach as an organized way of dealing with a problem. What is Job Analysis?
Physiological recording (for job analyses focused on the physical nature of the job).
Reviewing records and literature. Level of supervision received Work situations and job context In what physical and social contexts is the work performed?
Physical working conditions. A concept of this nature makes the process of job design a continually evolving process, dependent upon the will of the employee and balanced with the requirements of the company. In addition to the enhancement of social aspects for the individual performing the position, the culture of the company is being examined as well.