The spice trade between India and Europe was the main catalyst for the Age of Discovery. The inscription shown, is a Sanskrit invocation of Lord Shiva. The combination of protectionistimport-substitutionFabian socialismand social democratic -inspired policies governed India for sometime after the end of British rule.
Manufacturing provides a significant source of demand for goods and services in other sectors of the economy, and these sales to other industries are not captured in measures of manufacturing sector GDP but are counted in the broader measure of its gross output. Manufacturing is by far the most important sector of the U.
The manufacturing sector supported approximately The manufacturing sector is also a particularly important provider of jobs with good wages for workers without a college degree.
This can be seen in the manufacturing wage premium—the dollar amount by which the average manufacturing worker wage exceeds the wage of an otherwise comparable worker outside the manufacturing sector. The average wage premium for all U. The United States lost 5. The principal causes of manufacturing job losses were growing trade deficits, especially with China, Mexico, and other low wage nations, and the weak recovery from the Great Recession since The Great Recession was unusual because of the length and depth of the manufacturing employment decline.
Although nearlymanufacturing jobs have been added since the employment trough, U. If employment had recovered to the level of the average recovery in the post-World War II era, then an additional 1.
The weak manufacturing recovery is a product of both international and domestic challenges faced by the manufacturing sector. Currency manipulation by China, Japan, and other countries is one of the leading causes of the growing U.
This article follows the industry employment histories of all individuals who at some point have been affiliated with the declining German or the dismantling Swedish shipbuilding industry during – As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from urbanagricultureinitiative.com The economy of India is a developing mixed economy. It is the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and the third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). The country ranks th in per capita GDP (nominal) with $2, and nd in per capita GDP (PPP) with $7, as of Currency: Indian rupee (INR) ₹1 = USD.
Weak growth of domestic demand is also a major contributor to the relatively weak manufacturing recovery. The Midwest and some southern states have been particularly hard hit by the collapse of manufacturing since Those states are also well positioned for a manufacturing recovery if the structural causes of the manufacturing decline are reversed, including by eliminating currency manipulation, which would substantially reduce or eliminate the U.
In addition to the growth of the U. Jobs Inthe U.
This report uses a unique data set from the American Community Survey ACS to estimate the distribution of employment in each state and congressional district. Estimates of total manufacturing employment for each of 25 industries for each region in were obtained from the survey and used to develop estimates of the distribution of manufacturing employment in each state in the representative period.
Total state employment in manufacturing in was obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics cand allocated to states, industries, and congressional districts based on the distribution of employment obtained from the ACS U.
For further details on the data sources and models used, see Scott a, Appendix: All of the tables referenced in the text are available at the end of this report.
Manufacturing jobs in the states As Table 1 shows, manufacturing plays a particularly important role in the labor markets of a core group of states in the upper Midwest East North Central and selected West North Central and South East South Central.
Manufacturing was responsible for Manufacturing-dependent states in the South include Alabamajobs, Table 2 reports manufacturing employment in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia ranked by manufacturing jobs as a share of total state employment.
The top 10 states in by share of manufacturing employment were Indiana Table 3 provides the same information but ranks the 50 states and the District of Columbia by total manufacturing employment. The top 10 manufacturing employers in were California 1, jobsTexasjobsOhiojobsIllinoisjobsPennsylvaniajobsMichiganjobsIndianajobsWisconsinjobsNew Yorkjobsand North Carolinajobs.
Manufacturing jobs in congressional districts Using a new model and new congressional district data to estimate the job impacts of manufacturing for the th Congress, this study finds that manufacturing is a key source of jobs in many congressional districts, both net jobs and jobs as a share of total congressional district jobs.
For example, in over a third of congressional districts, manufacturing accounts for 10 percent or more of total jobs. These estimates use the data sources and models described above. The top 50 U. The top 10 U. The top 50 congressional districts, by share of employment in manufacturing, were widely dispersed throughout 16 states, nearly one-third of all the United States.
The states represented in the top 50 districts are Indiana seven congressional districtsMichigan sevenWisconsin sixOhio fiveAlabama threeArkansas threeCalifornia threeIowa threeTennessee threeKentucky twoNorth Carolina twoSouth Carolina twoGeorgia oneKansas oneMississippi oneand Oregon one.
Supplemental Table 1 reports manufacturing employment for each of the U. Congressional districts and the District of Columbia, ranked by manufacturing employment as a share of total district employment.Compared with other fossil fuels, natural gas is a cost-effective feed for making hydrogen, in part because it is widely available, is easy to handle, and has a high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, which minimizes the formation of by-product CO urbanagricultureinitiative.comr, as pointed out elsewhere in this report, natural gas is already imported as liquefied natural gas (LNG) .
The economy of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: экономика Советского Союза) was based on a system of state ownership of the means of production, collective farming, industrial manufacturing and centralized administrative planning.
Apparel industry manufacturing woollen garments and hosiery apparel, hand tools and industrial equipment, bicycle manufacturing, bicycle parts and metals fabrication. The industry began in the late 18th century, when Muslim artists settled in the town, and began making glass bangles and cotton knitwear, manufacturing hub in the country.
The economy of the United Kingdom is highly developed and market-oriented. It is the fifth-largest national economy in the world measured by nominal gross domestic product (GDP), ninth-largest measured by purchasing power parity (PPP), and nineteenth-largest measured by GDP per capita, comprising % of world GDP..
In , the UK was . The development crisis in Uganda began in the s with the rise to power of Idi Amin.
Amin’s administration destroyed the economy and disorganized industrial infrastructure. The statistical records of the s and s show a virtual absence of heavy industry.
This article follows the industry employment histories of all individuals who at some point have been affiliated with the declining German or the dismantling Swedish shipbuilding industry during –