Education model[ edit ] History and model overview[ edit ] John William Atkinson developed the expectancy-value theory in the s and s in an effort to understand the achievement motivation of individuals. Expectancies refer to how confident an individual is in his or her ability to succeed in a task whereas task values refer to how important, useful, or enjoyable the individual perceives the task. Theoretical  and empirical;   work suggests that expectancies and values interact to predict important outcomes such as engagement, continuing interest, and academic achievement.
Expectancy Instrumentality Expectancy theory posits that individuals will be motivated when they perceive that their efforts will result in a desirable outcome PSU, A fundamental underpinning of expectancy theory is that individuals pay heed to the potential outcome of their actions and the attractiveness of that outcome before they actually engage in that action PSU, The three components of expectancy theory are valence, instrumentality, and expectancy.
Valence is the positive or negative value that an individual assigns to a potential outcome PSU, Expectancy is the degree of belief that an individual has that their effort will lead to an anticipated level of performance PSU, Instrumentality is the degree of belief that an individual has that their level of performance will ultimately lead to an anticipated outcome PSU, Even if there is a strong linkage between performance and outcomes, A view on the expectancy theory the employees do not perceive that linkage, they will not be motivated to perform PSU,p.
He uncovers that Chuck is concerned that with budget cuts, he may not have the proper tools needed to succeed in his job and equip the team with the IT support that they need. He also finds that Chuck is an empty nester who values the opportunity to travel with his wife.
John explains to Chuck that while his IT budget will be diminished this year, he will still have sufficient funding to support the initiatives that he planned for. He also tells him that he is a key component in the success of the company and his contributions are valued.
Further, in an effort to provide an incentive to motivate Chuck, he offers him a bonus week of vacation at the end of the year if he is able to successfully implement all of his planned initiatives.
While Chuck had the perspective that his instrumentality would be affected by not having sufficient funding, John was able to reset his perception by explaining that his IT initiatives were still fully funded PSU, Lastly, by providing him with a potential reward that Chuck held high valance for, he was able to increase his motivation PSU, In an effort to retain this valuable employee and maintain her level of motivation, he sits down with her and let her know that this is only a temporary situation and of all the benefits that she can receive once things are back to normal.
He also educates her on the mentorship program within the leadership and loan forgiveness department. Currently, the President has a loan forgiveness program in which she can be forgiven for all or majority of her college loans and debt.
He also expresses that State Farm is one of the employers who qualify for the benefits of the program and that she should sit down with one of their personal counselors to get the process started. If she uses the companies program for assistance, she will have to agree to remain an employee at least two years thereafter.
Kelly, now ecstatic and more motivated agrees that she is happy to know that this is available for her and wants to take advantage of the opportunity.
By understanding the state of the company, and now understanding programs for debt relief, she is now agreeing to a two year term of employment which is the valence of her VIE equation PSU, If she can eliminate some of the debt she has, regular pay for a year would be perfectly fine because it will be ample enough for her daily life outside of the college debt.
Lana - While John would like to provide Lana with healthcare benefits or an increased salary, the current financial climate at State Farm does not allow him to. John sits down and has this discussion with Lana.
This John decides to give Lana more flexibility by allowing her to work from home two days a week. He sets her up as a remote telecommute at a modest expense to handle inbound sales opportunities. This allows Lana to save on childcare expense twice a week without negatively impacting her sales performance.
This childcare savings enables Lana to purchase her own health insurance. With both the understanding of the company, and the new flexibility of working from home, the valence of her equation is the cost savings and ability to afford health insurance PSU, John has tried to raise all three aspects of the VIE equation for Lana.
Susan - In order to re-instill a sense of attachment between Susan and the company, John decides to implement a two-pronged approach to Susan.
In this capacity, she will have an opportunity to immerse herself on special projects with the finance department. The finance department will get the help that it desperately needs and Susan will get both the training experience that she craves. By entering her into the internship program, it will demonstrate to her that her efforts will ultimately lead to an outcome which she holds in high valance, a finance job PSU, Further, her instrumentality will be affected positively because she will be better equipped with the experience that she needs.
By arming her with this experience, she will have an increased perception that her successful performance will ultimately lead to her desired outcome.
She will also get an opportunity to evaluate whether this is truly an endeavor worth taking. The second approach with Susan is to entrust her with coordinating small team building events. The goal here is to allow her to take ownership of the office culture in order to make her feel that she truly has an impact on the business.
Susan is enthused by the changes that John has implemented. She has been provided with positive multiplicative to all three facets of the VIE equation, valence, instrumentality and expectancy PSU, David - Being with the State Farm company for 18 years, David is looking for room to progress.Expectancy-value theory has been developed in many different fields including education, health, communications, marketing and economics.
Although the model differs in its meaning and implications for each field, the general idea is that there are expectations as well as values or beliefs that affect subsequent behavior. Expectancy theory in comparison to the other motivation theories.
There is a useful link between Vroom's expectancy theory and Adam's Equity theory of motivation: namely that people will also compare outcomes for themselves with others.
The three components of expectancy theory are valence, instrumentality, and expectancy. Valence is the positive or negative value that an individual assigns to a potential outcome (PSU, ).
Expectancy is the degree of belief that an individual has that their effort will . Expectancy Theory. Proposed by Victor H.
Vroom in , the Expectancy Theory explicates the behavioural process in which a person selects a behavioural option over another, and how this decision is made in relation to their aim of achieving their goal. Theory of Development. by Garry Jacobs, Robert Macfarlane, and N.
Asokan [presented to Pacific Rim Economic Conference, Bangkok, Jan , ]. Expectancy theory (or expectancy theory of motivation) proposes an individual will behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over other behaviors due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be.